Chapter four

The first steps into textile


e stopped on 27th January 1819 in Kirchen's cemetery for the burial of Georg Anton Franz Sartorius. The deceased left a widow and four sons. We shall not talk anymore about the oldest son, Joseph Anton Hermann. We only know that he became a wood inspector [Forstinspektor] in Biedenkopf, in the grand-duchy of Hesse, and that he died on 1st December 1854 in Gladenbach bei Gießen [1], leaving a descendance in Baden [2].

In 1807, Georg Anton Franz apprenticed his second son Adolph to the house Friedrich August & Christian Jung in Elberfeld [3]. The choice of this firm owed nothing to chance. As a matter of fact the Jung family originated from Kirchen and was related to the Capitos. Friedrich August's father, Johann Christian Jung, had married a second cousin of Wilhelmine Capito [4]. He was a cloth manufacturer, alderman and jury in Kirchen. His three sons also ran into textile. Friedrich August had cotton mills on Elberfeld and Kirchen itsel, where, jointly with his brothers Lorenz and Christian, he owned the Jungenthal fabric, which six hundred people produced by hand a thousand pounds of cotton thread per day in 1822 in [5].

Georg Anton Franz, who had likely received a legal education, wrote himself the draft apprenticeship contract of his son. We shall quote it almost entirely. So one will see how future businessmen educated themselves at a time when University only trained high level intellectuals.

Apprenticeship contract

between the undersigned, Messrs F[riedrich] A[ugust] & Chr[istian] Jung in Elberfeld and Mr administrator Sartorius in Kirchen on the following items:

We, from the first part, commit ourselves towards Mr administrator Sartorius to apprenticing his son Adolph in our business under the following conditions:

1/ From now on the interested shall serve for four consecutive years as an apprentice and, at the end of those, for two more years as an employee or as a clerk in our business with a salary corresponding to his merits.

2/ At the end of this period or later on, the interested shall not, without our consent, leave us to create his own business or join somebody in a business, whichever the conditions are, if this could harm us, before he has served for one year in an other country, what we are willing to help him for.

3/ Under any circumstances, he shall strictly and carefully conform to our instructions, as well in his job as an apprentice in our business as in his whole behaviour. Under this condition, we:>

4/ Want on our part that it be understood that he will always exert his whole attention in the running of the business, he will work with unweavering faith and continuous application, he will perform all the tasks that will be devoted to him according to our instructions, in brief he will work in the interest of the business and for its own good; that conversely, and inasmuch as it depends on him, he shall avoid to cause damage. [We want that it be understood] on the other part that, from the viewpoint of his future way of life, he will behave as can be expected and required from a well educated young man, i.e. under any circumstances in an irreproachable manner. Towards this goal, on our part we shall make sure:

5/ Carefully, during the whole period he will stay at us and in our business, that everything is done to make him a wise merchant and morerover a gentleman; also:

6/ During these four years of apprenticeship and with the assurance in which we are that the above conditions will be fulfilled, to friendly pay his lodging, food and also the cost of apprenticeship.

7/ In addition to grant Adolph a yearly advance of 60 to 70 florins to buy the necessary items during his years of apprenticeship, provided however he does not do it without our prior consent, and:

8/ Then the other part will reimburse us for their amount if, by any chance or any other cause on one side or the other, Adolph would not stay with us for the agreed duration and that they could not be reimbursed through his future work as a clerk.

9/ Mr administrator Sartorius commits himself to reimbursing us any damage that will or could be caused by his son; in this clause we envisage nothing but a punishable and irresponsible mistake that, due to a big imprudence, unfaithfulness or negligence, would cause a heavy prejudice to the smooth running of the business, if it occured.

As a confirmation of these contractual conditions, which the full and reciprocal achievement of the present apprenticeship depends on, now follow the signatures of both parties, among which that of Mr administrator Sartorius must be considered as a commitment for his son [6].

Actually Adolph Sartorius spent fifteen years in the house Fr. A. & Chr. Jung [7].

The city of Elberfeld, where Adolph Sartorius settled, has not had anymore an autonomous life for over 70 years. In 1930 it merged with four neighbouring municipalities, the most important of which, after itself, was Barmen. The five cities were embraced in the valley of an affluent of the Rhine, the Wupper. They gave birth to the current enormous agglomeration of Wuppertal [8]. Before the French Revolution, Barmen and Elberfeld were part of the duchy of Berg, one of the many principalties that pullulated in the Holy Empire. Located on the right bank of the Rhine, it stretched from Bonn to Düsseldorf, its capital. It encompassed the northern border of the Rhenish Massif. At the time of its biggest expansion, it counted 880 000 inhabitants for a surface of 17 300 square kilometers. This was the craddle of the Ruhr industry [9].

Figure 1: the craddle of the Sartorius family

Rhineland had a long industrial tradition. As soon as the 15th century, on all meadows along the banks of the Wupper, clothes were whitened and then sold throughout Germany. The development of the current Wuppertal started in Avril 1527 when duke Johann III of Berg granted for 861 golden florins the inhabitants of Elberfeld and those of Barmen the exclusive povilege of weaving and whiten cloth [Garnnahrungprivileg]. Actually the one that was manufactured in electoral Hesse, or even in Silesia, had a brown color not very much appreciated by customers. Once it had been whitened, it took value. The subjects of the duke of Berg quickly prefered this profitable job to cultivating an ungrateful soil. Once they had been sorted out according to their quality, clothes were boiled several times, washed and leached with potash, before being stretched on wires to whiten. Under the action of calcareous water of the Wupper, they were watered with, sun, wind and rain, they reached in a quarter a shining white. This was the starting point of the textile industr in the Wupper valley [10]. A 1773 poll already counted 100 linen bleaching workshops and 5 500 looms around Barmen and Elberfeld [11]. In the beginning of the 19th century, Rhineland was one of the rare regions in Europe which the industrial development of could be compared to England's one. It owed it first to the Rhine, which offered it an opening on Holland and its harbours. It owed it too to a rich land, with plentiful manpower. It owed it also to a demography that, from 1816 to 1855, brought the German population from 23 millions to 35 millions inhabitants. Lastly it owed it to French Revolution that consolidated its lead over the rest of Germany [12].

As said above, revolutionary France had annexed the whole left bank of the Rhine. Napoléon went even further. In 1806, under the blanket of a German Confederation, he had turned territories of the right bank into vassal states. For the sake of the cause, Berg, a Bavarian territory, had merged with Kleve, a Prussian territory. The Emperor had given the whole to his brother-in-law Murat, who took the title of grand-duke of Berg. As the latter became king of Naples in 1809, a very young son of Louis Bonaparte succeeded him. It barely hid a de facto annexion by France [13].

All that stood firm until 1813. Twenty years of French occupation had shaken up the Rhineland territories. It brought them war, conscription and taxes. It also brought them social progress. It unified the country thanks to the suppression of a hundred small ecclesiastic or secular states. It abolished feudality and corvées. It suppressed guilds and family monopolies. It introduced the code Napoléon. Lastly, urban bourgeoisie and wealthy peasantry were the main beneficiaries of the confiscation of noble lands and Church estates.

In the Ruhr basin, industry felt stimulated through it. Then almost exclusively industrial cities were born or grew. This was the case of Barmen, Elberfeld, Remscheid, Solingen. At the beginning of the 19th century this region already reached a density above 300 inhabitants per square kilometer. Ironworks developed. Textile knew a new expansion. It remained the emblematic industry of the Wupper valley. Of course tissues were made there. There were also mechanical industries, directed towards manufacturing machines for textile. As to chemical industries, they focused on artificial colorants. Silk fabrics in Krefeld, cotton and wool fabrics in Barmen and Elberfeld, linen ones in Cologne, Aachen and Mönchengladbach, clothes a bit everywhere challenged English products.

However, the status of vassal kingdoms of the Napoleonic empire was far from being enjoyable. Contrary to appearences, annexion had excluded them from the French community. The industry of the right bank of the Rhine was struck by the basic trade law of the Empire. It prohibited muslins, white or painted cotton fabrics, cotton thread fabrics, cotton blankets, spinned cottons for wicks, whatever their origin was. This was a disaster for the grand-duchy of Berg. The Continental System, set up by Napoléon from 1806 onwards to asphyxiate economically England, even worsened the situation. During the big economical crisis from 1810 until 1812, Beugnot, in charge of administrating the grand-duchy, sent alarming reports on Berg and Elberfeld's manufactures [14].

The end of the Napoleonic adventure heavily bore on the region. An imperial decree of 11th June 1811 levied four infantry regiments d'infanterie, a cavalry regiment and an artilery batalion in the grand-duchy of Berg. These units quickly molt on the battlefields of Spain. Hardly recompleted, they disappeared agan as early as November 1812 in the frozen plains of Russia. The importance of conscription had forced to replace men by women in the factories. However the people rejected it to the extent that the French authorities cme up to the point where they jailed several hundreds of parents of recalcitrants to put presure on their sons [15]. In the beginning of 1813, a new levying of soldiers caused a upheaval in the grand-duchy of Berg. The serious economic crisis that the grand-duchy was crossing and the introduction of tobacco and salt excises had to do with it. Most of the insurgents were jobless textile workers. They took control of Ronsdorf and Solingen. Troops sent from Elberfeld shot 17 rioters and restored order. The merchant and manufacturing bourgeoisie had not moved. All along the year 1813, in its majority, it remained loyal to the French and Berg authorities [16].

On 3rd November 1813, Elberfeld saw Jérôme Bonaparte, king of Westphalia, who was fleeing his kingdom, escorted by cuirassiers of his guard and some French cavaliers, pass by. Bits and pieces of the retreating Great Army followed him shortly after. On 9th November 1813, the first cosacks of major general Rusefowisch running after them arrived. The Russians camped for two days on the Ochsenkamp. On 13t November, councilor of State Gruner took possession of the grand-duchy of Berg on behalf of the allied powers.

At the beginning of 1814, Elberfeld and Barmen had to endure the presence od Swedish and Prussian troops heading towards France. There were not less than 65 generals, 770 sraff officers, 7 776 commissionned officers, 7 370 on commissionned officers and 109 360 soldiers of united armies, accompanied by 30 977 horses, who quartered there during the year 1814. All together, durng the 1813-1816 period, 300 000 men of all nations and 100 000 horses passed through Elberfeld and Barmen, whith their pageant of conscriptions and forced contributions forcées. As to this, the inhabitants of Barmen had to afford, not including direct taxes, a cost of 881 173,58 francs, split almost equally in war taxes, in forced boorwings and expenses for the municipality [17].

The Sartorius were not left out of these events since in 1814, Ferdinand joined the Landwehr in Usingen [18]. It was established in the kingdom of Prussia by Scharnhorst on 17th May 1813. All men from 17 to 40 years capable of serving and who were not already in regular units or Freikorps belonged to it. Each region was to provide a contingent proportional to its population. The units were distinguished by the color of the collar, green for Westphalia. However, the military value of the Landwehr was poor, as its equipment was miserable. The armament consisted mainly of pikes and axes, and many soldiers had no shoes [19].

In 1815, the congress of Vienna granted the grand-duchy of Berg to Prussia on a definitive basis, together with other Rhenish territories [20]. Barmen inhabitants then became Prussians [21]. However nothing was more different from actual Prussia, that of Berlin and Königsberg, protestant and militaristic, as this catholic and industrial Rhineland that held such a peculiar position in 19th century Germany.

Actually, the state of mind in Rhineland was violently anti-Prussian. Of course this was based on religious grounds. It was also due to diametrically opposing ways of life. In the eyes of the Rhinelanders, full of joy of living, Prussians were nothing but rigid and disciplined puppets. The social structure of Rhineland itself differed from the Prussian one. There the bourgeoisie was more powerful and active than elsewhere in Germany. This is why it had seen with concern the congress of Vienna decide the annexion of Rhineland territories to Prussia. It feared about its interests and dreaded the absolutism of the king of Prussia Frederick-William III. Having taken advantage of the French system, it felt that it was about to pay the price for its annexion by Prussia. This is why it made the most of its predominance in the Rhineland diet to wreck all of Berlin's initiatives aiming at substituting to the French type legislation a legislation based on civil inequality. The Parisian revolution of 1830 caused a new outbreak of liberalism. This was mainly the case in Aachen and Elberfeld, the only two cities in Prussian Rhineland that did not have the status of a fortress. As to Elberfeld, it was the only city above 30 000 inhabitants that did not have a garrison. However the Wupper valley will know new upheavals during the spring of 1849. Though Rhinelanders' liberalism remained very cautious. As to Prussia, it wanted above all to avoid replaying at home what had happened in Belgium in 1830. The catholic Belgians had risen up against their masters, the protestant Dutch, and had snatched their independence from them.

Progressively though, economic integration was achieved. New trade circuits were set up between Rhineland and the rest of the kingdom of Prussia. The economic recovery following the fall of the Empire and peace came back very quickly. So a geographical dictionnary of 1817 presents Elberfeld, that already counted 40 000 inhabitants, as an extremely interesting city as to industry. It seems that almost everything was manufactured there. Cotton and silk were spooled. Silk and cotton headdresses, mixed thread and cotton or pure cotton fabrics were made there. Linen was bleached and printed. Wool was worked out. Braids, ribbons, paper, knives and so on were produced there. As to its neighbour Barmen, it had specialized in ribbon and laces manufacturing [22].

While Adolph Sartorius was working at Fr. A. & Chr. Jung, his younger brother Ferdinand had become a master dyer at Hösterey & Gauché in Wupperfeld. In 1816, once the Napoleonic adventure and its accompanying wars were over, both brothers decided to create their own business, a Turkey red dying. Its headquarters were in Lange, close to Wupperfeld [23].

In the beginning of the 19th century, the place was still rural. The Wupper river snaked nonchalantly, deeply embanked between two rows of hills. The walker who had reached the top of one of them on a nice summer morning could see in the distance along the river edge the village of Barmen packed around its church. In front of Barmen, fields filled the whole far end of the valley. On the hillside within earshot, a shepherd, lazily laying on the grass, kept half an eye on his herd. Isolated, facing the walker, on the right bank of the Wupper, a big white two floor building was out of place in this rural landscape. In front of it, over the entire field that separated it from the river, on long rows of parallel fences, pieces of cloth were drying. It was the Sartorius brothers' dying [24]. Then the city counted no more than 1 600 houses, 221 fabrics, mills and stores and 575 stables and barns [25].

The word Turkey red or Adrianople red corresponds to a former linguistic gap. Today, it would rather be classifie among the orange coloured. It characterizes a dying process of a great complexity, using lead chromate, lead oxyde and eosine, giving an unequaled deep red and was a major trade secret. Making Turkey red was unusually disgusting. After having marinated in clay, thec cotton fibre, first rubbed with a mixture of ricine oil, cow dung and cow blood, was then dyed with alizarine and put in a stew. The final product then supported washing, light, acids and salts. The handkerchief with an Arab rider is a beautiful illustration of it in the 1870's [26].

Figure 2: a Turkey red handkerchief representing emperor Frederick II

For long andrinople was imported from Turkey and the Middle East through Vienna, Marseille and Venice. The secret of it came to Europe by Greeks of Thessalia at he end of the 18t century. A Saxon who had lived for long in Turkey delivered it to a dyer of Elberfeld for some golden louis he needed to end his return trip towards his birth counry. The technic of andrinople was brought to such a point of achievement that, very quickly, the products of the Wupper won Europe and even entered the Turkish market. In 1809 one couted 150 andrinople dyings manufactures in Elberfeld, Barmen and surroundings. The continental blocade hit them before they resume with renewed vigour [27].


The beginnings of both brothers were difficult. When their father died in 1819, their share of heritage was just enough to cope with the necessary investments. Ferdinand devoted all his time to this new business. Adolph, who had kept his position as a clerk at Jung's, could take care of it only outside working hours and on sundays. Despite all kinds of misfortunes, disasters and bankruptcies, both brothers kept faith in the future.

In 1821, Adolph left Jung's and joined Johann Friedrich Wolff, who operated a Turkey red thread firm in Elberfeld, as an agent and desk manager [Prokuratträger und Vorsteher des Comptoirs]. Johann Friedrich Wolff had his own dyings but he also let dye a lot of thread at subcontractors'. In agreement with his new boss, Adolph could devote more time to his own business. In this period of nascent capitalism, profits were huge. If we interpret correctly the figures given by Adolph, the 1821 financial year would have ended with a profit of 13 500 thaler, though he and Ferdinand had only brought respectively 3 794 and 7 150 thaler in capital. They could then perform the required investments to expand their business. Moreover, the new position of Adolph had acquainted him with manufacturers on the left bank of the Rhine in Rheydt, Gladbach, Kaldenkirchen, etc., who gave him important and profitable orders [28].

By a contract of 30th April 1825, Adolph and Ferdinand Sartorius bought pieces of land in Barmen from the heirs of Ambrosius Brand, which they quickly let build on a double house and various buildings, including a tread bleaching and a dying manufactures [29].

The business of the Sartorius brothers prospered. At the end of 1830, Adolph Ludwig's capital account amounted to 39 953,20 thaler and Ferdinand Joseph's one to 35 113,09 thaler. In 14 years the older would then have multiplied his initial investment by a factor 10, i.e. 18 % per year, and the younger his by a factor 5, i.e. 12 % per year [30] !

Figure 3: a Turkey red fabric

Germany then industrialized quickly. In 1830, four fifths of the Germans still lived in the countryside, seventy years later, in 1900, one fifth only. During the same period of time, the German population had more or less tripled. Roughly over the same period, the urban population had grown from 4 or 5 millions up to almost 50 millions, i.e. ten times more [31].

In the beginning of 1819, Ferdinand Joseph lived in a quarter of Barmen called in der Bridden. One month after his father had died, on 25th March 1819, he married a girl from Elberfeld, Anna Gertrud Heidkamp [32]. Her family ties were located in Ratingen, in the close suburbs of Düsseldorf [33]. Then the German bourgeoise woman lead a very dull life. The three K were her guiding principles: Kinder, Kirche, Küche, children, church, cooking. The married woman was a spouse and a mother. She was not entitled to any other claim. She had to find her own achievement, the one that morale, religion, gossip prescribed, in her household. There and only there she could find happiness. Her confessor, when she was a Roman catholic, did nothing but confirm this good mood. Out of there no salvation in the beyond [34].

Figure 4: Unterbarmen in 1836

Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius and Anna Gertrud Heidkamp settled in a quarter of Barmen called Scheurer Rotte. Eight children were born from their union, Adolph in 1819 [35], Ferdinandine in 1820 [36], Robert in 1822 [37], Richard in 1823 [38], Oswald in 1825 [39], Emma in 1826 [40], Dieter Emil about 1828 [41] and Maria Lisetta in 1835 [42]. In 1843 they married Ferdinandine to a boy from the region of Mönchengladbach, Johann Peter Drissen, serrled as a merchant in Liège [43]. In 1844, Adolph married a first cousin of him, Rosalie Drissen [44].

The boys likely attended the university since on 15th November 1847 Dieter Emil followed the cursus of the law school of the university of Heidelberg [45].

For the silver jubilee of Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius and Anna Gertrud Heidkamp, their children offered them China cups bearing the inscription in golden letters An unsere lieben Eltern 25 März 1844 [To our dear parents, 25th March 1844 [46]].

Figure 5: one of the cups presented to Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius and Anna Gertrud Heidkamp by their children for their silver jubilee (face)

Figure 6: one of the cups presented to Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius and Anna Gertrud Heidkamp by their children for their silver jubilee (profile)

Adolph Ludwig married some years after his younger brother Ferdinand Joseph. On 2nd September 1823 he got engaged to Julie Bargmann, from Elberfeld. The marriage was celebrated on 15th April 1824 by the lutheran minister Döring. Actually the fiancee, like her parents, belonged to the protestant religion. The wedding festivities took place in the house of the Bargmann parents [47].

At that time, the Prussian administration tackled health issues with important means. Actually, fight against big epidemics knew decisive successes after the last big outbreak of cholera, at the beginning of the 1830's. Quality of medical studies and research went together with progress of cares. Smallpox eradication, a desease that then played havoc with children, appeared among priorities [48]. This is why the documents relating to the vaccination of all of the children of Adolph and Julie Bargmann are still kept among the family papers, such as this one:

N° 2003 of the vaccination list

The parents of child Moritz, son of the merchant A. L. Sartorius, born in the quarter of Unter Barmen on 11th May 1834, are invited, if they want to have him inoculated free of charge, to bring him on Friday, 27th June at 2 p.m., to this town hall to have him inoculated with smallpox vaccine by the doctors present about this time.

It must also be noted that those who, by negligence or opposition, do not let their children be inoculated at the prescribed dates will sooner or later bear the whole responsibility and consequences described in the order of the highly commendable royal government of 10th May 1830 (advice sheet year 1830, section 33, page 257).

Barmen 20th June 1834

The mayor


(This sheet must be shown during the vaccination.)

The parents complied with this request since this other certificate can be found in the family papers [49]

N° 2003 of the vaccination list

Governement circle of Düsseldorf, town council of Barmen

Smallpox vaccination certificate

I undersigned certify that on 27th August 1834 Moritz Satorius [sic], born on 11th May 1834, son of Mr Adolph Satorius [resic], living in Barmen, was inoculated by me with a good vaccine coming from Joh. Fried. Avenz and that on the inspection on 4th September 1834 I acknowledeged the six subsequent marks as being good.

2004 Barmen                                                                Elberfeld, 4th September 1834

registered under n°

of the vaccination list                                                                                L. Mund

This certificate must be kept carefully.

After her husband's death, Wilhelmine Capito had sold the estatzs that he owned in Kirchen, among which the Sartorius Erbe [50]. On 19th July 1819, she settled at her son Ferdinand Joseph's in Barmen. In 1828, she moved and went to her other son Adolph in Elberfeld [51]. Wilhelmine Capito died of dropsy in Barmen on 31st December 1833 [52], between 4 and 5 p.m. She passed away in a house that she jointly owned with her two sons at Haspel bridge [Haspeler Brücke] in Unterbarmen [53], joining Elberfeld which it is separated from by the Wupper [54]. She was buried on 3rd January morning in the lutheran cemetery of Unterbarmen, Ronsdorfer Chaussée [55].

Figure 7: Unterbarmen cemetery

We have no direct information about the way of life of the Sartorius family at this time. However we have at our disposal the many studies devoted to the offspring of a mill owner family of Barmen who reached fame. This person also left an abundant litterary and epistolary production. From this angle we can then get a good idea of the way of life of this circle of the textile bourgeoisie of Barmen in the 1840's. The name of this interesting young man was Friedrich Engels. Of course it is tightly linked to Karl Marx's one. We must obviously make allowances in Engels's opinions. Though his testimony cannot be challenged in its entirety.

Friedrich Engels was born in Barmen on 28th November 1820. His father, whose name also was Friedrich, belonged to a very old manufacturers family. If he had not been calvinist, we could have imagined that little Friedrich used to play with his contemporary Adolph Sartorius, Ferdinand Joseph's oldest son. Anyhow both families could not ignore each other. Engels' father, was the classic example of the rich bourgeois from Rhineland. He owned spinning mills in Barmen and Manchester, in England, where he had joined the Ermen brothers. Politically, Friedrich Engels' father was a conservative, if not a reactionary [56]. In this period of building up capitalism, austere life and sense of saving were part of economic and social musts. For these manufacturers, they were moral virtues par excellence. Reading Engels' Letters from the Wupper valley enables one to rebuild the behaviour of this manufacturer bourgeoisie of Rhineland. Even if objectiveness of this correspondence must be treated with caution, it holds details that cannot be invented:

No idea about culture. A person is considered to be educated in Barmen and Elberfeld if he plays whist and billiards, talks a little about politics and has the knack of paying a compliment at the right time. Those people lead a terrible life and yet they enjoy it. During the day, they bury themselves in the figures of their books, and with a fury, an interest that could hardly be imagined. In the evening, at a given time, they all go in society. They play cards, talk about politics and smoke and go back home at nine o'clock. It goes on this way everyday, without a change and woe betide who wants to act in a different way. He can be sure of the most terrible disfavour. Young men are properly educated to that by their fathers. So they promise to become exactly like them. Their topics in the conversation are quite uniform. People from Barmen mainly talk about horses, people from Elberfeld about dogs. When conversation rises, they review local beauties or they chat about business. That is all. Once every half-century, they also talk about litterature, in which they count the names of Paul de Kock, Marryat, Tromlitz, Nestroy and consorts. As to politics, they are good Prussians, because they stand under Prussian domination. A priori they are opposed to any liberalism. All that as long as His Majesty agrees to let them use the Napoleonic code. For any patriotism would disappear with it. Nobody is aware of the literary side of Young Germany movement. It is considered a secret society, a bit like demagogy, under the chairmanship of Messrs Heine, Gutzkow and Mundt [57].

The only form of recreation that Engels' father allowed himself was music. We can easily imagine what these concerts of chamber music in the family house looked like, the father himself playing flageolet and cello.

Barmen, a city without any intellectual pretension, counted only one municipal college, that the Sartorius sons may have frequented. Anyway Friedrich Engels stayed there until he was 14. He had not kept too bad a recollection of it, when he talks about it in his Letters from the Wupper valley. It was a little college with weak financial resources, with teachers without many means and without style. However, everybody, director ahead, did all their best. In particular there was a very conscientious initiator to modern French, Dr Philipp Schifflin, the author of Instructions to teach French in three lessons. When he was 14, Friedrich had to leave Barmen college to go to Elberfeld Gymnasium that reported to the town lutheran community. He was called back by his father on 15th September 1837 and began to work as a trade clerk in the family business in Barmen. The circle, which young Engels lived in, put him in touch with a social reality, manufacture workers. Then he will talk about it with full knowledge of the facts. Contrariwise, this reality will always remain unknown to his associate Karl Marx, who was born in a circle of lawyers and civil servants. In the workshop, Friedrich Engels Jr reports,

Usually the master reads the Bible and sometimes starts an hymn with his journeymen; however the main issue remaining to condemn his fellow human being [...].

Figure 8: Wuppertal today

Young Engels was frightened the day when he discovered the life conditions of the workers in what he will call his father's dark satanic mill [58].

Three people out of five, he will write, die of consumption, and all that stems from alcoholism. Actually it would not matter so dreadfully if owners did not run their workshops in such an insane manner [...]. But an awful poverty reigns over the low classes of the Wupper valley, mainly among the manufacture workers. Syphilis and tuberculosis spread there in an incredible way. In Elberfeld only, out of 2 500 children old enough to go to school, 1 200 are taken away from teaching and grow up in the manufactures for the only reason that the manufacturer does not have to pay an adult the double of the salary he gives a child who takes over his job. But rich manufacturers have an accomodating conscience and to let one more or one less child decline does not lead any pietist soul to hell, moreover if, every Sunday, it goes twice to church [59].

In the bleacheries of this time, boys, from the age of 8, andgirls worked from seven o'clock or half past seven in the morning until ten or eleven in the evening [60]. And after work,

every evening one can hear the happy journeymen going through the streets singing their songs. But these are the most common licentious songs that ever came on lips fired by alcohol. You never hear one of these popular songs that are known in the whole rest of Germany and we can be proud of. All taverns are full, mainly on Saturdays and Sundays. In the evening at eleven o'clock, when they close, drunkards shoot out of them and most of them sleep it off in the gutters [61].

In 1876, Engels will still evoke these workers who sought escape in drunkeness. Despite the half century that had passed by, he still saw these whole groups of drunkards who

from 9 p.m. onwards [went away] with staggering footsteps, taking the whole width of the street and giving discordant shout from a bar to another one and endly wrecking at home.

As a matter of fact, about 1845, communism spread quickly among workers in Elberfeld and in the Wupper valley. Barmen police superintendant himself was suspected of being a communist. With such a wealth of experience behind him, Friedrich Engels refused to work any longer with his father. Business, sharp practice he used to say, disgusted him. He wanted to be a writer and devote himself to the cause of a new world order. A committed communist, he trusted in the future of communism [62]. And in 1863, Barmen and Elberfeld sent delegations to the founding congress of the Allgemeines Deutsches Arbeiterverein [General union of German workers] that met in Leipzig under the impulse of socialist Lassalle [63].

Both brothers Adolph and Ferdinand Sartorius did not follow Engels' example. They were perfectly integrated in the system. In 1831, Adolph Ludwig left his position at Johann Friedrich Wolff's. His brother and he then united their efforts to those of a brother-in-law of Adolph, Wilhelm Keller [65]. Its head office was in Elberfeld. It began being active on 1st August 1831 [66]. On this occasion, the three associates sent their customers and supplier a letter informing them of theses changes. This missive ended with this very modern care of customer:

We beg you to transfer the trust you have shown in us up to now in our business relations to the new firm. We shall eagerly strive to always deserve it [67].

Once again, the beginning was difficult. Competition was fierce and ecology was not the main concern of that era according to Engels' testimony:

The narrow river [the Wupper] rolls its purple waters, sometimes quickly sometimes slowly, between smoking factories and meadows covered with ribbons. Its bright red colour owes nothing to a bloody battle [...] but only to the many Turkey red dyeings [68].

Figure 9: Barmen about 1870

Colours set badly. Risky sales led the trio to bankruptcy. It suffered considerable losses. However, though modest, profits could be considered as satisfactory. Confidence inspired by the firm grew, while its reputation spread as well in Elberfeld as in the distance. The associates, whose reputation was quite honourable, faced no lawsuit. Generally considered, they did not lack credit [69].

The further destiny of this business is ignored. We only know that in 1839 Adolph Sartorius was characterized as a trademan in Barmen and Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius as a dyer in Barmen and that Adolph exhibited Turkey red thread under the name A. Sartorius & Co., from Düsseldorf at the industrial exhbition of London in 1851 [70]. In 1844, Ferdinand was still characterized as a dyeing owner [Färbereiinhaber] in Barmen [71]. He lived in the right half of a big and beautiful double house at Haspeler Brücke. His son Adolph and his family occupied the left half of it [72].

Figure 10: bourgeoise houses in Unterbarmen

At a given point, both brothers decided to dissolve the community that existed between them. Then Ferdinand became the sole owner of the grounds where the the double house and the thread bleaching factory [73]. He was a man of progress. Thus he counted in 1845 among the founding shreholders of the Gas-Beleuchtungs-Gesellschaft zu Barmen [Company for gas gas lightening of Barmen]. It produced gas from coal to feed the 332 forecasted floor lamps through the town. The 90 000 thaler of the stock of this public company where shared between the city of Barmen (20 000 thaler) and some forty private shareholders who held 350 shares of 200 thaler each. Among those one could find the top of the Barmen employers, out of whom August Engels [74], uncle of the famous Friedrich Engels, the mate of Marx, and shareholder of the family firm Caspar Engels und Söhne, from Barmen [75]. One could also meet various members of the Barmer erste Gesellschaft Concordia 1801, a club founded in 1801 by twenty five merchant of Barmen to foster the evenings in a nice mood [76]. Perhaps the Barmen society was more educated than Engels pretended. According to a specialized review in 1868,

the Concordia society is the focal point of all educated people. Richly provided, it puts its honor to be the protector and promotor of arts and sciences. An exhibition of paintings of the Barmer Kunstverein [Barmen arts union] takes place in summer in the lobbies of this society. In winter, the smart rooms are used for musical events or the conferences of famous érudits. The scientific conferences are organized by a "Comité für wissenschaftliche Vorlesungen" [Commitee for scientific conferences [77]].

Next year, Ferdinand also took part in the creation of a theatre in Elberfeld, the Theaterverein in Elberfeld. There again, he was together with seventy-five notabilities of Barmen, but also Elberfeld. One could find there the industrials Friedrich August Jung, Christian Jung and Johann Friedrich Wolff, who had guided the beginnings of Adolph in textile, or the mother-in-law of the latter, Mrs. widow Bargmann. The financing requirement was 40 000 thaler, out of which 28 000 brought under the form of 280 shares of 100 each, which Ferdinand Sartorius held two of [78].

Figure 11: Elberfeld theatre

Figure 12: share of Elberfeld theatre

Ferdinand devoted himself to his business up to the moment when he retired in Kleve [79]. This is were his daughter Emma lived. She had married a royal notary, Joseph Hopmann, whom she had twelve children from [80]. Though Ferdinand Joseph died in Barmen on 4th December 1854 [81]. He passed away about half past three in the afternoon at Adolph's house where he was staying for a couple of days. His son and his daughter-in-law had taken care of him in his last moments, during which he received the last sacraments [82]. His wife followed him to the grave eight years later [83]. Remaining an orphan, Maria Lisetta made a beautiful marriage in 1864. She married Richard Friedrich Houben [84], son of a notary and, by his mother, descendant of a family of paper mills owners [85].

Figure 13: Joseph Hopmann and Emma Sartorius

In 1857, the grounds in Barmen were the cause of a trial between, onthe one hand, Anna Gertrud Heidkamp and her children, and, on the other hand, the city of Barmen, who pretended make them pay 364 Reichsthaler and 24 groschen for the cots of paving the neighbouring streets, that went back 1817! On 27th January 1859, the case came before the appeal court of Cologne that gave them reason on the basis of a thirty year prescription. The city of went to annulment, that confirmed the judgement. Finally, on 5th June 1860, the Renish Senate confirmed the decisions of the annulment court [86].

The youngest of the Sartorius brothers, Ludwig Philipp Gerlach Sartorius, followed the way paved by his elders. As they did, he became a dyer in Barmen [87]. Later on he specialized in silk dying [88]. To tell the truth, the industry of the Wupper valley revealed a great flexibility when choosng its raw material. Thr first half of the 18th century had seenthe domination of linen. Cotton supplanted it definitively at the turn of the century, before it strted declining in the 1820's. Silk then took more and more importance, before it culminated in the middle of the 19th century [89]. Ludwig died at the age of 46 on 1st October 1848. His wife Maria Catharina Nolte or Nolden had died on 20th January 1845 [90]. They let five children, whom the oldest of hardly was only ten years old [91].

Adolph Sartorius, Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius' oldest son stayed in Barmen. There he owned a ribbon and haberdashery factory, one of Elberfeld's specialties [92]. His marriage with Rosalie Drissen was quickly followed by the birth of four children, Anna on 14th February 1845 [93], Ferdinand on 10th April 1846 [94], Adolph on 28th July 1847 [95] and Rosalie on 19th August 1848 [96].

In the years 1846 and 1847, the Wupper valley had to cope with a heavy economic crisis, mass poverty and a tremendous rise of the prices of food that led to starvation. In the first half of 1847, the five people's soups of Elberfeld served up to 4 000 rations a day. Nearly 40 % of the population lived on state aid [97].

The impact of the Parisian revolution of 1848 quickly reached Germany. However the German revolution had its own characteristics. To political and social demands, it added, and this is its original feature, national aspirations. As early as May 1848, a all-German national assembly gathered in Frankfurt am Main. It tryed to achieve German unity. Though it divided itself quickly between champions of a big Germany with Austria (Großdeutsche) and champions of a little Germany without Austria (Kleindeutsche). The latters won. In March 1849 they offered the king of Prussia Frederick-William IV the hereditary imperial crown. Austria recalled its delegates. As for the king of Prussia, he refused a crown picked up on the street. Minds began being in a ferment. In the beginning of 1849, popular upheavals broke out through whole Germany [98], in Palatinate and in the grand-duchy of Baden mainly.

Figure 14: the revolution of 1848 in Germany

In Rhineland, Elberfeld, which we have seen about the importance that the labour movement had taken there, was among the centers of uprising. In March 1848 workers of the neighbouring city of Solingen had destroyed, and set fire to, the biggest company of Berg country, Hasenclever, Burlage & Co. One year later, the decision of the Prussian government to mobilize the Landwehr ended up in getting people worked up. On 9th May 1849, Solingen workers joined those from Elberfeld. The insurgents plundered the warehouses and built barricades. They attacked the troops and stormed the jail from which they freed their comrades who had been imprisoned after the events of previous year. On 11th May, they set up a security committee in charge of supporting the movement and ensuring coordination between the revolutionary Commune of Elberfeld and Solingen insurgents. However, on 16th May, the movement collapsed under military pressure. State of siege reigned over Hagen, Iserlohn, Elberfeld and Solingen circles. The Prussian army quickly crushed the uprising. Insurgents fled or hid. Some were arrested. The action brought in 1850 against 26 Solingen insurgents ended with 11 heavy sentences [99].

One of the barricades built by Elberfeld's insurgents stood at Haspeler Brücke, close to the Sartorius' house. Anxious about the way events would turn out, three months pregnant Rosalie Drissen sheltered with her four children at relatives in Rheydt, that had remained quiet. As for Adolph, he stayed in Barmen to shield his business [100]. Thid was not a style clause. Louis Lekebusch, son of Ludwig Lekebusch, co-owner of the Turish red dying & Lekebusch in Elberfeld, who then was 14, will actually report many yaers later:

The events of the year 1849 made a profound impression on my child's soul. Barricades were built in Elberfeld and the mood plundered the mayor's house [Oberbürgermeister] Carnap and destroyed the furniture and material. I was the there when the riotters took th jail by assault and broke violently the gate of the old reformed church to ring the bell. I also saw the military arrive from Düsseldorf and, as we lived next to the town hall in the Burgstraße, I observed from our window the fights around the barricades of the Schwannenstraße, which captain von Uttenhoven died sadly on and I could hear the crash of cannonballs further beyond. My mother led with us the children to parents in Barmen and I shall never forget haw we had to cross over the barricades of the Haspeler Brücke [101]].

As calm came again, births followed one another at the Sartorius's. They were in order Emma Elisabeth in 1849, who did not live [102], Helene in 1851 [103], Elisa in 1856 [104], Maria in 1860 [105] and Carl in 1862 [106].

During meals, the Sartorius children had to be quiet, obey and eat from everything that was coming on the table. They frequented Elberfeld schools. Later on, Anna was placed in a boarding school in the Calvarienberg, near Altenahr [107]. Adolph was absolutely anxious that, when they came back from school at 5 p.m., his children seated around the large table and did their homework. However this was about the time when he came back from his factory. Actually, the children recognized his arriving thanks to the creak of his boots on the staircase.

Although it was domiciled in Barmen, the family used to go to Saint Lawrence church [Laurentiuskirche] in Elberfeld. It then was the only church where one could make his first communion and confirmation. Saint Lawrence day, on 10th August, was the occasion of a beautiful pageant. Barmen also had its pageants.

According to Rosalie's testimony, she and her siblings enjoyed a nice youth. Their parents gave them a lot of joy. They often went for a walk, either big or little, in the garden and outside. Once, their father paid them a punch [Bowle] at Einsil's, in Elberfeld's garden, what caused them to joy [108]. The girls had many girl friends, whom they often organized big parties [große Visitten] with. Once, Rosalie Drissen had even let an organ come, to the sound of which the misses danced and had a lot of good time. On free afternoons, the Sartorius misses were allowed to go and walk in Blueberries wood [Waldbeerenbusch], where they picked up bilberries [Preiselbeere]. During summer evenings, they went and drank milk at Hamerschmidt's in Christ wood [Christbusch [109]]. However, even when they had an invitation, they had to be imperatively back home for their piano lesson.

Later on, the Sartorius children went to, and met regularly, their Drissen grand-parents, who had retired in Honnef, a little spa town on the Rhine bank, about 20 kilometres south of Bonn. During spring, several children spent holidays there. They used to first take the steam ship in Düsseldorf. They went the Rhine up stream for about sixty kilometres. Their good grand-mother picked them up at the steam ship landing stage in Königswinter, opposite Bonn. She gave them fruits from her garden that she had brought with her [110]. However her grand-children did not hesitate to plunder her big and beautiful garden, full of fruit trees. They had a lot of good time on this nice estate [111].

Figure 15: Saint Lawrence church in Elberfeld

Despite years and deaths, the Sartorius family remained united. So Adolph Sartorius and his uncle Adolph Ludwig kept taking care of the orphan children of their uncle and brother Ludwig. Their first names were Julie, Hugo, Heinrich, Maria and Ottilie. As a guardian they had a Mr Nolde, an uncle on their mother's side. Since 1848, Adolph Ludwig had a debt of 500 thalers on his brother Ludwig [112]. In 1860, with compounded interests, it amounted to 813,17 thaler. After having asked the views of his sons and nephew Adolph, Adolph Ludwig decided to make a gift of it to Ludwig's children. He gave Julie, who had already married a Mr Müller, 125 thaler. He gave Hugo, who was about to be 23 years old [113], the same amount [114], Heinrich 150 thaler and the last two daughters, Maria and Ottilie, the balance, i.e. 413,17 thalers. The corresponding amounts were partly paid to the beneficiaries and partly invested. As for the last two daughters, they were fully invested into bills [115].

Figure 16: Christmas 1848 gift of E. Sartorius [116]

Adolph Sartorius died in the prime of life of a liver and vesicle desease [117] that carried him off in three weeks [118]. Yet he had taken twice waters in Carlsbad, that had brought him relief [119].

In the morning you drink 3 to 6 glasses and bads of mineral water as welle as steam bads or mud bads are used successfully, that are taken at Franzensbader moor [120].

Figure 17: Carlsbad

After having received the Church sacraments several times, he passed away on 3rd February 1864 at midnight, at the age of 44 [121]. He was remembered as a right man who had the sense of duty and acted in a Christian manner in any circumstance of life. Hismarriage with Rosalie Drissen had been so happy and his death so unexpected that his death announcement took up the famous verse of saint Paul's epistle to the Romans:

How incomprehensible are the Lord's judgments and how unsearchable his ways! [122].

Figure 18: the Sartorius's in Barmen

Adolph Sartorius was buried in Barmen's cemetery. When passing in Elberfeld in 1903, his son Carl could still meditate beside his father's grave. He laid there tulips and daffodils [123].

His uncle Adolph Ludwig outlived him shortly. He died in Düsseldorf on 3rd March 1866 [124].

Rosalie Drissen stood alone with eight children, whom the oldest of was 18 the youngest one and a half. She sent her daughter Rosalie to a boarding school in Münstereifel, so that she could learn general education, domestic science and piano and also start learning handicrafts. Münstereifel's sharp air quickly restored Rosalie's weakened strengths, so that she had opportunities to often go and visit a Sartorius relative of her, a priest in Eifel, who lived with her mother and sisters [125]. After a year, she left the boarding school with many tears. Anna also went to a boarding school in Aachen, to prepare a vocotional training certificate for teaching. As for Helene, she was sent to another school, the Calvarienberg, where Anna had already stayed at [126].

In November 1865, Rosalie Drissen moved from Barmen to Boppard, on the Rhine bank, near Koblenz [127]. She made nice contacts there. In September 1866, her ten year old daughter Elise died of typhoid. She was a gifted girl with good promise.

Figure 19: Boppard

In November 1867, the grands-parents Drissen' gold wedding caused big festivities that gathered the whole family [128]. On that occasion, Anna and Helene had left their boarding schools. Rosalie and they arrived the day before at Königswinter, where the grands-parents' open car picked them up. Peter Drissen, despite his 85 years, and his wife were still alert. On the party day, Carl, who was then five years old, had to open fire and recite a poem:

I am the youngest of your grand-children's troop and I bring my wishes for the happiness of the couple that celebrates its jubilee, and so on.

The most beautiful and biggest apples and pears from the garden decorated the lunch table. Under his plate, everybody found a picture of the grands-parents. There were various entertainments. Episodes of the grands-parents life were sung. In the evening, the young generation let off a firework. Rosalie Drissen, her sister, Mrs Compes, and Miss Friedericke Beines, their mother's lady's companion, had organized everything to perfection.

Figure 20: Ferdinand, Adolph and Carl Sartorius

Once the party was over, Anna and Helene went back to their respective boarding schools. Later on they became teachers. Rosalie stayed with her mother and the last two children, Maria and Carl, in Boppard. Ferdinand and Adolph, who had been trained to business, left for France and then England [129]. We shall find Ferdinand and Carl again in the following chapters. As for Adolph, he later left for the United States. His family never saw him again [130]. One could have expected that Adolph Sartorius's sons would have taken over their father's business. That, coupled with the fact that the mother and daughters had to work, leads to think that the family certainly met a setback when the father died. This feeling is reinforced by this statement by Carl as he went and meditated over the grave of this father whom he had almost not known:

I spent half an hour near the grave and I thought of all what happened because of Daddy's early death [131],

and by this sentence of Rosalie Drissen's death picture:

What backed her up in the multiple strikes of destiny was her unshakeable and never staggering trust in God [132].

The life of Rosalie Drissen and her daughters in Boppard was quite social. Her daughter Rosalie had many friends there. She used to take part in a circle of about fifteen girls. Every week, these Misses organized trips, they set up a choir, they danced in the casino. They put plays on stage, which the entrance fee to was 50 pfennig and the profit of was intended for the poors. However, Rosalie Drissen, an accomplished lady of the house, did not neglect to teach her daughter housekeeping. Rosalie had to learn sewing, mending, ironing, cleaning and cooking. On this last item she improved her education with a training at Laacher Hof hotel in Cologne. During her stay in this town, she stayed at her uncle Compes', next to the Holy Apostles' closter [Apostelnkloster [133]].

In 1870, war broke out with France. Rumor had it that the French were coming near. The Sartorius family sheltered in Holland, at relatives. The way the situation turned out enabled it to quickly come back to Boppard. It lived near the railway station. It then saw French prisoners trains passing by that stop there. Once a group of prisoners called on the Sartorius's asking for coffee with sugar. The French officers, prisoners on parole, joined Boppard's best society. The German heroes back in their homeland also passed through Boppard's station. They were given an excellent meal and taken back to their trains with flowers and crowns. The 1870-1871 winter was so cold that Rosalie's clothes froze once she brought coffee to the soldiers [134].

In 1875, the Drissen grands-parents died a few months apart [135]. At this point in time Rosalie Drissen and her three daughters Anna, Rosalie and Helene, opened in Bonn a boarding school to deliver general musical and household education for girls [136]. The fact that Rosalie Drissen and her daughters had to work to earn their living is a likely confirmation that they found themselves in a difficult financial situation, maybe worsened by her parents' death.

Figure 21: Rosalie Drissen about 1875

Maria, who then was only fifteen years old, carried on her education. She also frequented Cologne academy. Later on she was a valuable help to hermother. Life in the boarding school was intense and state of mind there was excellent. Anna, Helene and Maria ran general teaching, that often called upon external teachers. Both Rosalies, mother and daughter, were in charge of administration. Specially trained young boarders helped them regularly. Rosalie Drissen wanted food to be good, for the satisfaction of everybody. Boarders enjoyed a lot of entertainment. They went on excursions. They went to concerts. They went and saw plays. Conversely performances were given, which well-known ladies were invited to. Sometimes festivities took place in the Sartorius's house itself, in particular on the pupils patron saint's day and on Shrove Tuesday. The number of boarders fluctuated between twelve and twenty. The business lasted eighteen years, until 1893 [137].

Rosalie Drissen and her daughters then settled in Koblenz where they stayed for several years. Unfortunately Rosalie suffered from rhumatism. This is why she moved to Honnef, where her parents had lived. The mild climate helped her recover. Her daughters took turns with her.

In 1893, Maria left the mother home. She took on a position as a private tutor, first at admiral Houman's in Brussels then in a French family in Saint-Méry, near Melun. She died of typhoid in this city in 1899, far from her family. Her last words were sursum corda [138]. A month before her death, she had once more come to rest in Honnef. She was very gentle and deeply religious. Her death was a big loss for her sisters. Her mother suffered a lot of it.

Figure 22: Bad Honnef about 1900

Anna also was a private tutor in France. Rosalie was a lady's companion in families that missed a mother. She also played organ in two monasteries where she also made sewing jobs. Helene took care of her mother's home and gave her the care she needed. She also gave private lessons. In 1902, the three sisters celebrated their mother's eighty years with dignity [139]. In 1903, Rosalie Drissen and her daughter Rosalie were visited by her son and brother Carl, who was passing by in the region. He found them in a great form. He left them a picture of his son Erich, who then was five years old. This gift procured them a great pleasure [140].

Until the end of her life, Rosalie Drissen remained sound in body and her health remained satisfactory. She still took care of housework with pleasure. She wrote letters. She played piano and composed accompaniments for religious songs. During the last six years of her life, her daughters used to take her for a ride in her beautiful Heidelberg car [Heidelbergerwagen], what caused her a lot of joy. She died of a short disease three weeks before her eighty-eighth birthday at 4 p.m. [141], on 17th January 1910 in Honnef [142]. Anna and Rosalie were with her. Helene and Carl, then far away, arrived only after her death.

Figure 23: Anna, Rosalie, Helene and Maria Sartorius about 1875

We shall find Carl's track again, but from then on the three sisters lived together [143]. Their nephews, Carl's children, knew them as the Honnefer Tanten [the aunts from Honnef [144]]. Ordeals left their mark on the end of their life. They were struck by effects of ageing, ordeals of diseases and consequences of World War I [145]. A source of inflation, war mainly penalized small savers and pensioned people, in Germany as in France. However the phenomenon took a bigger extent on the other side of the Rhine. The allies did not lift their blocade before 1919. Then came contributions and war reparations, occupation of the Ruhr and passive resistance, inner riots and uprisings, conflicts on the eastern borders, the many strikes that punctuated these events and physical exhaustion of workers [146]. The modest wealth and the weak ressources of the Sartorius' sisters likely ran away in the upheaval. In February 1919, they had to give up their home. Then they settled at St Elisa and St Philomene convent sisters' [Elise-Philomenenstift] in Honnef [147]. Anna died shortly after, in April 1919 [148], of a lever and vesicle disease. She was buried in Honnef in the Linzerstraße cemetery, where the three sisters had bought a plot for them [149].

Bad Honnef knew the side effects of the crises that qui agitated the Weimar Republic. In 1923, separatists, who wanted to found a Rhenish Republic, came from Koblenz, occupied the town and devastated, among othes, the casino (Kursaal). The population organized an armed militia. In novembre 1923, both camps faced each other near the Aegidienberg, in what the opponents to the separatists called a battle and they took glory from. There were several casualties with the separatists, before the French forces intervened he next day and took away the latters by force [150].

Figure 24: Bad Honnef seen from Drachenfels

A long life had led them from middle-class comfort to the threshold of poverty. They had forgotten themselves to take care of others. Without biterness and strengthened by her faith, Rosalie wrote in 1920:

So Helene and I slowly go towards death. Here in the convent we can well prepare ourselves to it. Our dear sisters and our good father help us faithfully. As our God disposed well of it [151].

Rosalie died in Honnef on 25th March 1930 and Helene on 13th August 1932 [152].

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[1] : Handwritten note of Otto Sartorius (Mrs Marion Leihener's archive). In his memo Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius, Otto Ritgen gives the 16th December 1854 as the date of death.

[2] :, IGI, C 959492 et M 959493, et, WorldConnect, ovenbird, 8th June 2010.

       Joseph Anton Hermann may also be the father of this Karl Sartorius, son of a Revierförster in Hessenstein, pupil in the Gymnasium of Hersfeld, holder of the Abitur in the Autumn of 1846, dead as parish priest of Salzuffeln (, 18th November 2006).

[3] : Draft apprenticeship contract dated 10th February 1807 (Mrs Marion Leihener's archive). See a photocopy of the original at annex 6.

[4] : Correspondance with Martin Kipping, 1st November 2002.

[5] :, art. Jung Wilhelm, 3rd May 2010.

        The great man of the Jung family was Wilhelm (1800-1867), son of Lorenz. A bit younger than Adolph Sartorius, he followed an identical cursus. After having studied in a private school in Kirchen, he came to Elberfeld to work on the firm of his uncleFriedrich August, whose daughter Sophie he married. He came back to Kirchen where he developed and modernized the family firm (ibid.).

[6] : Draft apprenticeship contract dated 10th February 1807.

[7] : Family book held by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius.

        Friedrich August Jung was the son in law of Johann Carl Wuppermann (1741-1810) who had made a fortune in trading ribbons and Barmen articles (Barmer Artikel) and the business of which he carried on sucessfully (, available in cache on Google on 2nd May 2010).

[8] : Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. Barmen and Wuppertal.

[9] : Ibid., art. Berg, and CD ROM Encyclopedia universalis, 1997, art. Berg.

[10] : Wilhelm Langewiesche, in connection with G. Siebel, G. Goutelle, G. K. Hötte and G. Röls, Elberfeld und Barmen, Beschreibung und Geschichte dieser Doppelstadt nebst besonderer Darstellung ihrer Industrie, einem Ueberblick der Bergischen Landesgeschichte, Barmen, 1863, p. 264, B . P. Sonderland, Die Geschichte von Barmen im Wupperthale nach der Zeitfolge der merkwürdigen Ereignisse, welche sich in Barmen von den früheren Zeiten bis zum Jahre 1821 eingetragen haben, Heinrich Büchler, Elberfeld, 1821, pp. 23 and 24, Johann F. Knapp, op. cit, p. 232, and, 15th Jul 2006.

[11] : Pierre Ayçoberry, Marc Ferro and al., op. cit., pp. 65 and 152, Jean Bruhat, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, essai biographique, Le Club Français du Livre, 1971, pp. 23 to 25, Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. Wuppertal.

, and Jean Tulard, Le Grand Empire, Albin Michel 1982, pp. 108, 109, 126, 128, 201 and 248

[12] : Joseph Rovan, op. cit., p. 465, and Jean Tulard, Jean-François Fayard and Alfred Fierro, op. cit., p. 446.

[13] : Alfred Fierro, André Palluel-Guillard and Jean Tulard, op. cit., p. 534, Johann F. Knapp, Geschichte, Statistik und Topographie der Städte Elberfeld und Barmen im Wupperthale; mit Bezugnahme auf die Stadt Solingen und einige Städte des Kreises Lennep, Wilh. Langewiesche, Iserlohn et Barmen, 1835, pp. 17 to 20, Wilhelm Langewiesche and al., op. cit., pp. 261 to 265, B. P. Sonderland, op. cit., pp. 171, 172 and 180, Jean Tulard, Le Grand Empire, pp. 82, 181, 277 and 314, and Jean Tulard, Dictionnaire Napoléon, art. Berg, p. 196 to 200.

[14] : Pierre Ayçoberry, Marc Ferro and al., op. cit., pp. 65, 152 and 161, Jean Bruhat, op. cit., pp. 23 to 25, Jean-Paul Bled, Histoire de la Prusse, p. 286, Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. Wuppertal, Johann F. Knapp, op. cit., pp. 20, 21 and 38 to 40, Wilhelm Langewiesche and al., op. cit., pp. 122, 123 and 131, B. P. Sonderland, op. cit., pp. 181 to 188, Jean Tulard, Le Grand Empire, pp. 108, 109, 126, 128, 201 and 248, and Jean Tulard, Jean-François Fayard and Alfred Fierro, op. cit., p. 446.

[15] : Johann F. Knapp, op. cit., pp. 21 to 23, and Wilhelm Langewiesche and al., op. cit., p. 206.

[16] : Wilhelm Langewiesche and al., op. cit., pp. 132 and 133, B. P. Sonderland, op. cit., pp. 184 to 188, and Jean Tulard, Dictionnaire Napoléon, art. Berg, pp. 196 to 200.

[17] : Johann F. Knapp, op. cit., pp. 24 to 26, 76, 77, 145 and 187, Wilhelm Langewiesche and al., op. cit., pp. 124, 133, 206 and 250, B. P. Sonderland, op. cit., pp. 188 to 199, and, 13 juillet 2006.

        881 173 francs-or of 1813 are worth 5 to 6 millions euros of 2010. Let us recall that the population of Barmen then did not count more than 20 000 inhabitants (B. P. Sonderland, op. cit., p. 9).

[18] : Family book held by Wilhelmine Capito.

[19] :, art. Landwehr, 4th November 2011.

[20] : Jean Bruhat, op. cit., pp. 23 to 25, Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. blocus continental, Jean Tulard, Le Grand Empire, pp. 108, 109, 126, 128, 201 and 248, and Jean Tulard, Dictionnaire Napoléon, articles Berg, pp. 196 to 200, and Confédération du Rhin, pp. 457 to 462.

[21] : Jean Tulard, Jean-François Fayard and Alfred Fierro, op. cit., p. 446.

[22] : Pierre Ayçoberry, Marc Ferro and al., op. cit., pp. 209 to 212, 214 and 218, Jean Bruhat, op. cit., pp. 23 to 25, 31 to 33 and 36 to 38, H. F. Peters, Jenny la Rouge, Madame Karl Marx, née baronne von Westphalen, translated from German by Léa Marcou, Mercure de France, 1986, pp. 79, 106, 108, 118 and 119.

        About the upheavals of 1848 and 1849, cf. infra.

[23] : Family book held by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius.

        Johann Salomon Gauché der Ältere was born in Kleve in 1778 and died in Barmen in 1851. He was Lutherian and ribbon trader and owner of a dying factory [Garnhändler, Färbereibesitzer], Berliner Straße in Barmen. He had married in Barmen in 1805 Anna Elisabeth Hösterey, born in Barmen in 1784. The latter was the daughter of Johann Peter Hösterey, born in Schwelm in 1751, dead in Barmen in 1835, owner of a dying factory [Färbereibesitzer], Mühlenweg in Barmen, and Anna Elisabeth Scharpenberg (, 21st May 2010).

        Barmen was erected as a town only in 1808, under the French occupation. Strictly speaking, this then was not a town, but a gathering of hamlets: Gemarke, Wichlinghausen, Rittershausen, Heckinghausen, Unterbarmen and Wupperfeld. Located in Oberbarmen, Wupperfeld had developed from 1780 onwards around an evangelic church built in the Wupper valley and counted more than a hundred houses and 1 600 inhabitants in 1821. The name Wupperfeld in itself [litteraly Wupper field] is enough to express how close the river of this name was. Lange could not be located precisely (B. P. Sonderland, op. cit., p. 5, Johann F. Knapp, op. cit., p. 184,, 13th July 2006, and, art. Oberbarmen, 29th May 2010).

        In 1821, Barmen counted 50 dying factories (B. P. Sonderland, op. cit., p. 11).

     Turkey red is a cheap cotton cloth, usually red in color [the German word is türkisch rot] (Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. andrinople).

[24] When staying once at the Alfa hotel, Hirnstrasse in Munich, I had the surprise to discover on the wall of my room a copy of an ancient engraving with this mere legend Barmen. The preceeding description is inspired by it. Although there was no indication of a date, one can think that it corresponded to the end of the 18th century or the very beginning of the 19th century. On the other hand attributing the ownership of the building to the Sartorius brothers, the presence of which is linked beyond any doubt to a textile business, is no more than a guess from my part.

[25] : Wilhelm Langewiesche and al., op. cit., p. 276 , and B. P. Sonderland, op. cit., p. 9.

[26] :, 4th February 2005,, 3rd February 2005, and, 3rd February 2005.

[27] : Wilhelm Langewiesche et al., op. cit., p. 273.

[28] : Family book held by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius

        If the estimation that we have tried is correct (cf. note 53 of chapter 2), 13 500, 3 794 and 7 150 thaler would respectively be worth 270 000, 75 000 and 140 000 euros of 2006.

[29] : Theodor Striethorst, Archiv für Rechtsfälle die zur Entscheidungen des königlichen Ober-tribunals gelangt sind, nouvelle suite, quatrième année, premier volume, J. Guttentag, Berlin, 1861, pp. 270 à 273.

[30] : Family book held by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius.

        If the estimation that we have tried is correct (cf. note 53 of chapter 2), 39 953 and 35 113 thaler would respectively be worth 800 000 and 700 000 euros of 2006.

[31] : Pierre Bertaux, op. cit., pp. 15 to 17.

[32] : Marriage certificate of Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius and Anna Gertrud Heidkamp, Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 25th March 1819.

[33] : A brief genealogy of the Heidkamp (or Heydkamp) family is as follows:

        I- Joannes Heidkamp married in Derendorf, a western suburb of Düsseldorf, on 21st May 1714 Barbara Winckel [or Winckels], whose issue:

        II- Wilhelmus Petrus Heidkamp, baptized in Derendorf on 6th August 1719, married in Derendorf on 7th July 1740 Maria Catharina Burggartz, whose issue:

        III- Michael Anton Heidkamp, born in Derendorf on 21st February 1749, gardener, who died in Ratingen, a northern suburb of Düsseldorf, between 1793 and 1819. He married in Derendorf on 18th November 1774 Maria Francisca Heck, daughter of Johannes Heck and Maria Catharina Frantzen, whose issue:

        IV- Anna Gertrud Heidkamp, born in Ratingen on 2nd September 1793, who died in Kleve on 21st October 1862.

        (Sources: Ratingen town archive, church books of the Roman catholic parish, 2nd September 1793, Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 25th March 1819, Kleve vital records, 21st October 1862, letter of 20th May 2001 from Wilfried Sartorius and, 6th April 2005)., 5th February 2005).

[34] : Pierre Bertaux, op. cit., p. 38.

[35] : Birth certificate of Adolph Sartorius, Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 24th December 1819.

        When, during the Thirty Year war, Swedish troops took their winter quarters in Barmen in 1634, judge Esgen, in agreement with the elders, decided to share his ressort in twelve Rotten [litteraly troops], placed under the authority of a Rottmeister, so that the installation of the Swedes would be better coordinated and the burden would be fairly shared. This cutting up, altered in the course of time, remained. This is why the Scheurer Rotte was united to others in the Gemarker Rotte. West of Wupperfeld, Gemarke counted 20 streets, 700 houses and 8 400 inhabitants. A catholic churh could be found there (B. P. Sonderland, op. cit., pp. 6, 7, 43 et 44).

[36] : Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 8th December 1820.

[37] : Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 4th April 1822.

        Mentioned as a merchant in Barmen in his brother Adolph's marriage certificate in 1844, he emigrated in 1846 to Leipzig (Barmen then was a part of the kingdom of Prussia and Leipzig of the kingdom of Saxony), where it seems that he founded a line (e-mail of 4th January 2003 from Wilfried Sartorius).

[38] : Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 20th October 1823.

[39] : Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 17th January 1825.

[40] : Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 7th June 1826.

[41] : A Dieter Emil Sartorius, 23 years old, living in Barmen, is mentioned as a witness in the birth certificate of Helene Ferdinandine Sartorius, daughter of Adolph Sartorius (Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 16th July 1851).

[42] :, IGI, M 968138.

[43] : Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 1st October 1846.

        They had at least five children, all born in Liège. The oldest was Théodore Adolphe Ferdinand, born on 19th August 1845. The second, Eugène, born in 1846, was a non commissioned officer at the grenadiers. The third, Charles, was a merchant in Saint Petersburg. Marie Emma Céline, born on 20th May 1851, married in Liège on 25th July 1871 an engineer, Hubert Léopold Offermans. As to the youngest, Oscar, born on 8th February 1854, he seems to have been a poor subject. He serrled in Paris as a fabric agent. He married at the town hall of the 18th arrondissement on 28th August 1895, a milliner, Clarisse Angéline Buferne, whom he lived in cohabitation with and whom he had had a girl from fifteen years before (Paris archive, V4E 3671, certificate n° 1123, V4E 3784, certificate n° 4278, and V4E 10348, certificate n° 1408, AD Yonne, 5Mi 669/3, f° 29,, IGI, I 967671, and, 15th November 2010).

        Mönchengladbach, city of the Land of Nordrhein-Westfalen, circle chief town, Düsseldorf district, 23 kilometers west-south-west of Düsseldorf, in Cologne basin, 154 200 inhabitants. Great centre of textile business: cotton, wool, artificial fibers, spinning, weaving and finishing, dyeing, clothing industry, knitting, iron casting, rolling mills, mechanical building (textile machines) (Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, article Mönchengladbach).

        Given the remark by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius about the business relations that his brother and he had set up with fabricants in Rheydt, Gladbach and Kaldenkirchen (cf. note 20 ), one can think that the Drissen family counted among them.

[44] : Marriage certificate of Adolph Sartorius and Maria Rosalia Drissen (Rheydt, Mönchengladbach, vital records, 22nd May 1844).

        A brief genealogy of the Drissen family is as follows:

        I- Joes Driessen, married Anna Foosen, whose issue:

        II- Matthaüs, said Tivus, Driesen [or Driessen], mentioned on 12th November 1817, was Oekonom and died in Pungs [today Pongs] bei Rheydt, a city in the western suburbs of Rheydt. He had married in Rheydt on 11th August 1772 Catharina Lambertz, daughter of Michael Lambertz and Anna Meer, baptized in Rheydt on 22nd February 1757.

        III- Johann Peter Drissen [or Driessen], baptized in Rheydt on 31st July 1782, died in Honnef (today Bad Honnef am Rhein) on 26th February 1875. He was a fabricant, likely in textile, if one judges by the industries of Mönchengladbach (cf. note 31). Textile could also be at the origin of the links between both families Sartorius and Drissen (cf. note 20 and 31. Peter Drissen is also mentioned as an owner and a member of the church council of Rheydt. He had married in Liedberg (today Korschenbroich) on 12th November 1817 Anna Christina Prinzen, born in Glehn (today Korschenbroich) on 9th February 1790, who died in Honnef on 20th October 1875. She was a daughter of Peter Prinzen, born about 1760, Oekonom, and Maria Catharina Flisgen [or Flisges], born in Steinforth (today Korschenbroich) about 1753, who died in Liedberg on 27th March 1826.

        IV- Maria Rosalie Drissen, born in Rheydt on 2nd February 1822, who died in Honnef on 17th January 1910.

        (Sources: NRWPSAR, Rheydt church books, 22nd February 1757, 11th August 1772 and 31st July 1782, Roman catholic parish Sankt Pankratius of Glehn, baptism books, 9th February 1790, Liedberg, Korschenbroich, vital records, 12th November 1817, 28th March 1826 and 9th December 1841, Rheydt, Mönchengladbach, vital records, 7th January 1822 and 22nd May 1844, and Bad Honnef am Rhein vital records, 27th February 1875 and 20th October 1879).

[45] : Gustav Toepke, Die Matrikel der Universität Heidelberg, sixième partie, von 1846 bis 1870, Carl Winter's Universitätsbuchhandlung, Heidelberg, 1907, p. 61.

[46] : Wilfried Sartorius carefully keeps one of these cups that came up to him, as well as pieces of silver plate with a mongram A. S. [Adolph Sartorius] (meeting with Wilfried Sartorius, 21st July 2007).

[47] : Family book held by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius.

        Pastor Karl August Döring (1783-1844) is a character of German social protestantism. Designated as the pastor of the lutheran community of Elberfeld in 1816, he created there youth fellowships and organised missions. He is the author of more than 1 200 Lieder (, 9th July 2006).

         The roman catholic religion was in minority in Elberfeld and Barmen. About 1800, there were 2 000 catholics in Barmen and in 1830 5 800 catholics vs 24 300 protestants in Elberfeld (, 11th July 2006).

[48] : Joseph Rovan, op. cit., p. 467.

[49] : Certificates delivered by Elberfeld township (Mrs Marion Leihener's archive).

[50] : Family book held by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius. The article of the Siegener Zeitung already quoted (cf. note 126 of chapter 3) says that the house known as the Sartorius Erbe had been bought in 1830 by a Stein family. It is quite possible that it bought it from Wilhelmine Capito who was then liquidating the properties that she still had in Kirchen.

[51] : Family book held by Wilhelmine Capito.

[52] : Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 2nd January 1834.

[53] : Note by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius on the genealogy of the Sartorius family established by Georg Anton Franz Sartorius.

[54] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius [Biography of Rosalie Sartorius]. The original of this document, written by Rosalie Sartorius herself about 1920, was kept by her grand-nephew Jürgen Schenk, pastor in the former East Germany, who died in 2000, (e-mails of 1st May 2001 from Wilfried Sartorius and 5th May 2001 from Hartmut Sartorius).

         Barmen's Burgmeister undertook from 1811 onwards to build the Allee, nowadays Friedrich-Engels-Allee, along the Wupper, next to Haspel bridge, at the edge of Barmen and Elberfeld. Planted with linden trees, it quickly became the most beautiful avenue of Barmen. In the years 1825's double houses of a classical architecture, known as Haspel Häuser, were built there (, 13th July 2006).

[55] : Note by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius on the genealogy of the Sartorius family established by Georg Anton Franz Sartorius.

        The creation of Unterbarmen cemetery goes back 1822, the year when the local Lutheran community became autonomous vis-à-vis Elberfeld (, 13th July 2006).

[56] : Tristram Hunt, Engels, le gentleman révolutionnaire, translated from English by Marie-Blanche and Damien-Guillaume Audollent, Flammarion, 2009, pp. 25 sq. and 123.

         : For the sake of the anecdote, a van Ermen, owner of a factory [Fabrikbesitzer] in Manchester, then certainly from the same family, married a certain ... Juliane Sartorius. Born in 1810, she belonged to the Sartorius family from Nassau-Hachenburg (cf. chapter 1) (retired pastor Otto Sartorius, op. cit., p. 21).

[57] : Friedrich Engels, Briefe aus dem Wuppertal published in the Telegraph für Deutschland of March and april 1839, gathered in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Werke, Karl Dietz Verlag, East-Berlin, 1976, volume 1, p. 428.

         French writer Paul de Kock (1793-1871) prided himself on having published over 400 volumes and having had 200 plays of him played. His works, very low brow with their risqué jokes, though being quite forgotten today, had the largest succes in their time in France as well as abroad. A British Navy officier, Frederick Marryat (1792-1848) published a great number of stories about life at sea, books for children and a voluminous A Diary in America. An Austrian comic actor and author, Johann Nestroy (1801-1862) successfully played his own comedies and vaudevilles (Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, articles Kock (Paul de), Marryat (Frederick) and Nestroy (Johann)).

         Young Germany is an intellectual movement born about 1830, liberal and francophile, initiated by Heinrich Heine (1797-1856) and Börne, emigrated in Paris, and supported in Germany by writers Karl Gutzkow (1811-1878), H. Laube, Theodor Mundt (1808-1861), G. Herwegh, K. Immermann and L. Wienhand, that was widely inspired by saint-simonian ideas. Frankfurt diet (1835) condemned Young Germany as being contrary to religion, moral and social order and banned Gutzkow's German Review as well as his fellows' works. The nationalist unrest of 1840 brought the movement, that disappeared after 1848, a severe stroke. There is no need to introduce Heinrich, or Henri, Heine, one of the biggest German poets, who, because of his political ideas, had to go in 1831 into exile in Paris, where he died (Ibid., articles Gutzkow (Karl), Heine (Heinrich), Jeune Allemagne and Mundt (Theodor)).

[58] : Jean Bruhat, op. cit., pp. 25, 31 to 33 and 36 to 38, Friedrich Engels, op. cit., p. 426, and H. F. Peters, op. cit., pp. 79, 106, 108, 118 and 119.

[59] : Friedrich Engels, op. cit., p. 4187.

[60] : Pierre Bertaux, op. cit., p. 179, and, 15th July 2007.

[61] : Friedrich Engels, op. cit., p. 417.

[62] : Jean Bruhat, op. cit., pp. 25, 31 to 33 and 36 à 38, H. F. Peters, op. cit., pp. 79, 106, 108, 118 and 119, and Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. Engels.

[63] : Tristram Hunt, op. cit., p. 69, and, 28 décembre 2006.

        About Lassalle, whose tracks, strangely enough, crossed Hatfeldt's ones, cf. note 4 of chapter 3.

[64] : Family book held by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius.

[65] : Circular of 1st August 1831 heralding creation of the Keller & Sartorius company (Mrs Marion Leihener's archive).

        The family book held by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius indicates as the godfather of his son Alex, born on 25th June 1829, my brother in law Wilhelm Keller. Alex's godmother was nobody but Anna Gertrud Heidkamp, Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius's wife (ibid.). Then the trio Wilhelm Keller - Adolph Sartorius - Ferdinand Sartorius knew each other quite well.

[66] : Family book held by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius.

[67] : Circular of 1st August 1831 heralding creation of the Keller & Sartorius company.

[68] : Friedrich Engels, op. cit., p. 413.

[69] : Family book held by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius.

[70] : Family book held by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius and Official catalogue of the Great Exhibition of the works of industry of all nations 1851, édition corrigée, Spicers Brothers, wholesale stationers ; W. Cloves & Sons, printers, Londres, 1851, p. 268.

[71] : Marriage certificate of Adolph Sartorius and Maria Rosalia Drissen.

[72] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

[73] : Theodor Striethorst, op. cit., p. 270.

[74] : Amts-Blatt der königlichen Regierung in Düsseldorf, Jahrgang 1846, J. E. Dänzer'schen Drückerei, Düsseldorf, without date, pp. 105 to 112.

        If the estimation that we have tried is correct (cf. note 53 of chapter 2), 90 000, 20 000 and 200 thaler would respectively be worth 1 800 000, 400 000 and 4 000 euros of 2006.

         In averag, each shareholder held some ten shares, i.e. 2 000 thaler of stock (40 000 euros of 2006). This can give an idea about the fortune of Ferdinand Sartorius, knowing this was there probably a small investment from him.

[75] :, art. August Engels, 2nd June 2010, and Hisashi Watanabe, Die Wuppertaler Unternehmer in den dreissiger Jahren des 19. Jahrhundert: eine Analyse des Adreßbuch von 1833 unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Vehältnissess zwischen Baumwolle und Seide, in Hokudai economic papers, n° 3, 1972, p. 145.

[76] : B. P. Sondermann, op. cit., pp. 167 and 168, and, 2nd June 2010.

         Among the directors of this company, we find again the names of Engels and Hösterey, but also those of Bartels, Bredt, Erbslöh, Eykelskamp, Molineus, von Eynern, Siebel and Werlé, that are also met among the shareholders of the Barmen gas enlightment company (, 2nd June 2010). A Molineus had married a daughter of August Engels (, art. August Engels, 2nd June 2010). Also see Hisashi Watanabe, art. cit., about who the Elberfeld and Barmen employers were at that time, mainly p. 145 for Engels, pp. 149, 152 and 153 for Siebel, pp. 153 and 155 for Bredt, p. 153 for von Eynern, p. 156 for Erbslöh, p. 157 for Bartels and p. 158 for Eykelskamp.

[77] : Signale für die musikalische Welt, Leipzig, n° 27, 8th May 1868. p. 523.

[78] : Amts-Blatt der königlichen Regierung in Düsseldorf, Jahrgang 1846, pp. 525 to 534.

[79] : Ibid. confirmed by vital records. In 1844 he was a dyer in Barmen (marriage certificate of Adolph Sartorius and Maria Rosalia Drissen). In 1854 he had no occupation and lived in Kleve (death certificate of Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius, Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 6th December 1854).

[80] : Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 1st October 1846, and Frau Wittwe Notar Joseph Hopmann geb. Sartorius' memento (Mrs. Marcel Nollet, born Madeleine Wibaux, archive).

[81] : Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius' death certificate.

[82] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius and Ferdinand Sartorius' death announcement stuck in the family book held by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius.

[83] : Kleve vital records, 22nd October 1862.

[84] :, IGI, M 968138.

[85] :, art. Schoeller, Heinrich August, 27th October 2010.

[86] : Theodor Striethorst, op. cit., pp. 268 to 279.

        If the estimation that we have tried is correct (cf. note 53 of chapter 2), 364 thaler would respectively be worth 7 500 euros of 2006.

[87] : Hisashi Watanabe, art. cit., p. 147.

[88] : Letter of 16th February 1997 from Mr Hans Sartorius.

[89] : Hisashi Watanabe, art. cit., p. 147.

[90] : Letter of 16th February 1997 from Mr Hans Sartorius.

[91] : Family book held by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius.

[92] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

[93] : Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 15th February 1845.

[94] : Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 10th April 1846.

        Registered on the vital records under both first names Peter Ferdinand, he then gallicized them in Pierre Ferdinand.

[95] : Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 30th July 1847.

[96] : Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 21st August 1848.

[97] :, 15th July 2006.

[98] : Henry Bogdan, op. cit., pp. 288 to 296, and Joseph Rovan, op. cit., pp. 496 to 510.

[99] :, 28th December 2006,, 28th December 2006, and, 28th December 2006.

[100] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

[101] :, 25th May 2010.

[102] : Born on 7th November 1849 (Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 10th November 1849), she died the year after (e-mail of 16th April 2001 from Wilfried Sartorius).

[103] : Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 15th July 1851.

[104] : Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 14th April 1856.

[105] : Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 12th December 1860.

[106] : Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 23rd May 1862.

[107] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

        The Ursulines had opened in 1838 a lower and upper school for girls with boarding on the location of a Franciscan monastery. This name of Calvarienberg comes from the fact that a knight, back from the Holy Land in 1440, had found a striking resemblance between this location and Jerusalem (, 28th December 2006).

[108] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

        German Bowle, that, according to Gerhard Wahrig, op. cit., article Bowle, is a drink made of wine, fruits, spices, sugar and Sekt [German sparkling wine], has been translated by punch.

[109] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

        Hamerschmidt is likely the milkman's name. Christbusch is a wood that spreads along the flanc of the Kaiser-Friedrich Höhe, a hill standing about 1 kilometre south of the Wupper and the Haspeler Brücke (, 28th December 2006).

[110] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

        It seems that this garden was pretty large since a gardiner had to care for it. Actually Johann Peter Drissen's death was notified in Honnef on 27th February 1875 by Michael Schmitz, forty-eight years old, who stated to be the deceased's gardiner [welcher Gärtner des Verstorbenen zu sein angab] (Honnef vital records, 27th February 1875).

[111] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

[112] : Letter of 18th February 1848 from Ludwig Philipp Gerlach Sartorius to Adolph Ludwig Sartorius (Mrs Marion Leihener's archive).

[113] : Family book held by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius.

[114] : Letter of 16th February 1997 from Mr Hans Sartorius.

[115] : Family book held by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius.

[116] : Today, Wilfried Sartorius caefully keeps this cup, under the saucer of which is this inscription C. Büttner zum E. Sartorius Weihnachten 1848 [C. Büttner for E. [Emil ?] Sartorius, Christmas 1848] (meeting with Wilfried Sartorius on 21st July 2007).

[117] : Adolph Sartorius's memento (Mr Paul Sartorius's archive).

[118] : Family book held by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius.

[119] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

        Carlsbad, ou Karlsbad, est l'actuelle ville tchèque de Karlovy Vary, au confluent de la Teplá et de l'Oh?e (Eger en allemand). Elle connut son heure de gloire au 19ème siècle avec le développement du thermalisme. La réputation de ses eaux était mondiale. A la fin du 19ème siècle, Carlsbad recevait 26 000 curistes par an et en 1911 76 000 (, art. Karlsbad, 29 mai 2009).

[120] : Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1898, quoted in, art. Karlsbad, 29th May 2009.

[121] : Barmen, Wuppertal, vital records, 5th February 1864.

[122] : Rom., 11, 33 (Adolph Sartorius's memento).

[123] : Reisetagebuch von Carl Hermann Sartorius (Wilfried Sartorius' archive).

[124] : Handwritten memo without a date from Moritz Sartorius (Mrs Marion Leihener's archive).

[125] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

        The Sartorius relative priest could not be identified. He is likely a son of one of Adolph's brothers, Robert, Richard, Oswald or Dieter.

[126] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

[127] : Ibid. and Maria Sartorius's memento (Mrs Marcel Nollet archive).

[128] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius, that certainly wrongly places the event in November 1866. Actually Johann Peter Drissen and Anna Christina Prinzen had married on 12th November 1817 (cf. note 33).

[129] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

[130] : Letter of Mrs Fernand Sartorius (Mr Paul Sartorius' archive).

        It is also possible that Ferdinand and Adolph Sartorius left Germany to escape the three year Prussian military service, what was among the motivations of the many Germans subjects of the kingdom of Prussia, who emigrated to the United States during the 19th century, 28th December 2006).

[131] : Reisetagebuch von Carl Hermann Sartorius.

        Wilfried Sartorius holds from his aunt Hannelore Schenk that Adolph Sartorius would also have met probems with a partner (meeting with Wilfried Sartorius on 21st July 2007).

[132] : Rosalie Drissen's memento (a copy of it in Bertrand Sartorius's archive). This document also attributes to her this peculiar prayer drawn from Azaria's song in the oven: Die auf dich vertrauen, o Herr, werden nicht zu Schanden werden [Those who trust in Thou, O Lord, will not suffer shame] (Daniel, 3, 40). Both quotation and reference seem however somewhat approximate. The Bible de Jérusalem gives the following text of it: 40Our sacrifice be such today in front of Thou and please Thou and may we follow Thou, for there is no confusion for those who trust in Thou. 41And now we put all our heart to follow Thou, and fear Thou and look for Thy face. 42Do not let us in shame but act with us according to Thy leniniency and according to the greatness of Thy love.

[133] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

        The Compes uncle and his wife, whom we met before as the organisers of her parents' silver wedding, were Heinrich Joseph Gerhard Compes, son of Johann Heinrich Compes, clerk, and Anna Catharina Roosen, born in Korschenbroich on 20th February 1810, baptized Roman catholic in Korschenbroich on 21st February 1810, dead in Cologne on 12th January 1887, and Maria Catharina Drissen, an older sister of Rosalie, born in Rheydt on 1st March 1819, who died in Cologne on 11th May 1906, whom he had married in Rheydt on 11th May 1842 (Reisetagebuch von Carl Hermann Sartorius, and, 17th April 2005).

        Interesting character that Gerhard Compes. He studied law in Bonn and Munich. In 1829 he became member of the Germania Bonn Burschenschaft. He was also a member of Marcomannia München and co-founded the Germania München. In 1835, he settled as a lawyer in Cologne. The same year he was sentenced to 10 years of internment in Wesel as a leading member of a Burschenschaft, but was released in 1837, thanks to a reduction of sentence. From 1838 to 1880, he practiced as a lawyer in Cologne. In 1844 he was a founder of the Centralverein für das Wohl der arbeitenden Klassen in Cologne. Between 1847 and 1859 he was elected several times alderman of Cologne. In 1848, he held the presidency of the Liberal central committee for the constituency of Cologne. He took part in the Vorparlament in Frankfurt am Main and was elected by the constituency of Siegburg as a member of the national assembly in Frankfurt where he belonged to the breaking of the Württemberg Hof. In 1849, he participated in the Nachparlament in Gotha. In 1850 he was a member of the people's house of the Unionsparlament in Erfurt. Since 1847, he was chairman of the supervisory board of the Neusser Hütte. From 1861 to 1880 he was a member of the management and counsel [Justitiar] of the Rheinische Eisenbahngesellschaft (, art. Gerhard Compes, 21st April 2012, and, 21st April.

[134] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

        A sister and a brother of Anna Christina Prinzen, Rosalie Drissen's mother, as well as Ernst August Drissen, a nephew of the latter, had settled in the Netherlands, in the region of Eindhoven (, 11th February 2007).

        Freedom that French officers, prisoners of war in Germany, enjoyed is confirmed by general André Bach, L'Armée de Dreyfus, une histoire politique de l'armée française de Charles X à «l'Affaire», Tallandier, 2004, pp. 80 to 82, and François Roth, La guerre de 70, Fayard, 1990, pp. 421 to 424.

[135] : Honnef, today Bad Honnef am Rhein, vital records, 27th February 1875 and 20th October 1875.

[136] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius, Maria Sartorius's memento and letter from Mrs Fernand Sartorius.

        We at least know the name of a pupil of the Sartorius boarding school in 1889 et 1890, the Luxembourgish Aline de Saint-Hubert. Born in Luxembourg in 1874, in a family originatig in Diekirch that held a gross wood trading in the capital, she married in Emile Mayrisch, a steel engineer, future chairman of ARBED, that will merge in ARCELOR, then Mittal. At the turn of the century, Aline de Saint-Hubert collaborated to the review l'Art moderne edited in Brussels by Octave Maus, then leader of all vanguards, and the Jahrbuch für bildende Kunst edited by Max Martersteig. She gave noticeably the L'Art moderne in 1903 an article about L'Immoraliste of André Gide. In 1906, she took the iniative of creating the Association pour les intérêts de la femme [Association for the interests of women], the goal of which was to help the most divested ones and promote the education of girls. From 1917 onwards, her husband and she favoured the French-German rapprochements. In 1928, the year when her husband died in a car accident near Châlons-en-Champagne, she became vice president of the Luxembourgish Red Cross, that she chaired from 1933 onwards. In 1939, she left for Cabris, in the Alpes-Maritimes, where she died in 1947 (, art. Aline de Saint-Hubert, 1st September 2007, and, 1st September 2007).

[135] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

[138] : Melun vital records, 11th September 1899, Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius and Maria Sartorius's memento.

        The indication relating to admiral Houman stems from the letter from Mrs Fernand Sartorius, that unfortunately does not give the first name of the daughter in question. Though one can imagine that she is Maria. The indication relating to Saint-Méry stems from her death certificate. This is likely where the French family, which she was a tutor in, lived. She died in Melun, rue de l'Hôpital, at 4 a.m., hence certainly in an hospital. Her memento states that she was a tutor in a French family and quotes her last words. According to a hand written memo in Mrs Etienne Delloye archive, she was small in size. She would have been buried in Melun, where she would have been a lady in attendance.

[139] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

[140] : Reisetagebuch von Carl Hermann Sartorius.

[141] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius and Rosalie Drissen's memento.

[142] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

[143] : e-mail of 18th April 2001 from Ortrud Meier, born Sartorius.

[144] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

[145] : Bruno Cabanes, La victoire endeuillée, la sortie de guerre des soldats français (1918-1920), Editions du Seuil, 2004, p. 374, and Joseph Rovan, op. cit., p. 620.

[146] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

[147] : Honnef, today Bad Honnef am Rhein, vital records, 15th April 1919.

[148] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius.

[149] :, art. Bad Honnef, 29th May 2009.

[150] : e-mail of 16th April 2001 from Wilfried Sartorius.

[151] : Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius. Of course the sisters are the nuns of the convent.

[152] : e-mail of 16th April 2001 from Wilfried Sartorius.

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